Philosophy category

Thoughts are Things

Mulford was born in Sag Harbor, New York and, in 1856, sailed to California where he would spend the next 16 years. During this time, Mulford spent several years in mining towns, trying to find his fortune in gold, copper, or silver. After leaving the mining life, Mulford ran for a position on the California State Assembly in Sacramento. Although he was nominated, he ultimately lost the election. He returned to San Francisco and began writing for a weekly newspaper, The Golden Era. Mulford spent five years as a writer and editor for various papers and was named by many San Franciscans a "Bohemian," for his disregard for money. Mulford states in his autobiography, "poverty argued for us possession of more brains" (Prentice Mulford's Story 130). He became known for his humorous style of writing and vivid descriptions of both mining life as well as life at sea. In 1872, Mulford returned to New York City, where he became known as a comic lecturer, author of poems and essays, and a columnist for [The New York Daily Graphic] from 1875-1881. Mulford was also instrumental in the founding of the popular philosophy, New Thought, along with other notable writers including Ralph Waldo Emerson. Mulford's book, Thoughts are Things served as a guide to this new belief system and is still popular today.

published on 23-10-2019 - 124 views
Apologie de Socrate

Platon naquit à Athènes en l’an 428-427 av. J.-C. dans le dème de Collytos. D’après Diogène Laërce, son père Ariston descendait de Codros. Sa mère Périctionè, sœur de Charmide et cousine germaine de Critias, le tyran, descendait de Dropidès, que Diogène Laërce donne comme un frère de Solon. Platon avait deux frères aînés, Adimante et Glaucon, et une sœur, Potonè, qui fut la mère de Speusippe. Son père Ariston dut mourir de bonne heure ; car sa mère se remaria avec son oncle Pyrilampe, dont elle eut un fils, Antiphon. Quand Platon mourut, il ne restait plus de la famille qu’un enfant, Adimante, qui était sans doute le petit-fils de son frère. Platon l’institua son héritier, et nous le retrouvons membre de l’Académie sous Xénocrate ; la famille de Platon s’éteignit probablement avec lui ; car on n’en entend plus parler. La coutume voulait qu’un enfant portât le nom de son grand-père, et Platon aurait dû s’appeler comme lui Aristoclès. Pourquoi lui donna-t-on le nom de Platon, d’ailleurs commun à cette époque ? Diogène Laërce rapporte qu’il lui fut donné par son maître de 5 gymnastique à cause de sa taille ; mais d’autres l’expliquent par d’autres raisons. La famille possédait un domaine près de Képhisia, sur le Céphise, où l’enfant apprit sans doute à aimer le calme des champs, mais il dut passer la plus grande partie de son enfance à la ville pour les besoins de son éducation. Elle fut très soignée, comme il convenait à un enfant de haute naissance. Il apprit d’abord à honorer les dieux et à observer les rites de la religion, comme on le faisait dans toute bonne maison d’Athènes, mais sans mysticisme, ni superstition d’aucune sorte. Il gardera toute sa vie ce respect de la religion et l’imposera dans ses Lois. Outre la gymnastique et la musique, qui faisaient le fond de l’éducation athénienne, on prétend qu’il étudia aussi le dessin et la peinture. Il fut initié à la philosophie par un disciple d’Héraclite, Cratyle, dont il a donné le nom à un de ses traités. Il avait de grandes dispositions pour la poésie. Témoin des succès d’Euripide et d’Agathon, il composa lui aussi des tragédies, des poèmes lyriques et des dithyrambes.

published on 23-10-2019 - 121 views
Le rire. Essai sur la signification du comique

Ce livre comprend trois articles sur le Rire (ou plutôt sur le rire spécialement provoqué par le comique) que nous avions publiés jadis dans la Revue de Paris 2 . Quand nous les réunîmes en volume, nous nous demandâmes si nous devions examiner à fond les idées de nos devanciers et instituer une critique en règle des théories du rire. Il nous parut que notre exposition se compliquerait démesurément, et donnerait un volume hors de proportion avec l’importance du sujet traité. Il se trouvait d’ailleurs que les principales définitions du comique avaient été discutées par nous explicitement ou implicitement, quoique brièvement, à propos de tel ou tel exemple qui faisait penser à quelqu’une d’entre elles. Nous nous bornâmes donc à reproduire nos articles. Nous y joignîmes simplement une liste des principaux travaux publiés sur le comique dans les trente précédentes années.

published on 23-10-2019 - 114 views
REPUBLIQUE - Platon

Oeuvre philosophique de platon ..... ....... ......

published on 23-10-2019 - 99 views
The Man Who Was Thursday: a Nightmare

Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936) was one of the most influential English writers of the 20th century. His prolific and diverse output included journalism, philosophy, poetry, biography, Christian apologetics, fantasy and detective fiction. Chesterton has been called the "prince of paradox." Time magazine, in a review of a biography of Chesterton, observed of his writing style: "Whenever possible Chesterton made his points with popular sayings, proverbs, allegories—first carefully turning them inside out." For example, Chesterton wrote the following: Thieves respect property. They merely wish the property to become their property that they may more perfectly respect it. Chesterton is well known for his reasoned apologetics and even those who disagree with him have recognized the universal appeal of such works as Orthodoxy and The Everlasting Man. Chesterton, as political thinker, cast aspersions on both Liberalism and Conservatism, saying: The whole modern world has divided itself into Conservatives and Progressives. The business of Progressives is to go on making mistakes. The business of the Conservatives is to prevent the mistakes from being corrected. Chesterton routinely referred to himself as an "orthodox" Christian, and came to identify such a position with Catholicism more and more, eventually converting to Roman Catholicism. George Bernard Shaw, Chesterton's "friendly enemy" according to Time, said of him, "He was a man of colossal genius".

published on 22-10-2019 - 119 views
Shelby D. Hunt – Théoricien du marketing

Né en 1939, Hunt a travaillé quelques années en entreprise avant d’obtenir son PhD en 1968. Il est aujourd’hui « Jerry S. Rawls et P. W. Horn Professor of Marketing » à Texas Tech University, Lubbock. Ancien rédacteur en chef de Journal of Marketing (de 1984 à 1987), il a écrit plusieurs ouvrages, dont Marketing Theory : Fundations, Controversy, strategy, Resource-Advantage Theory (M.E. Sharpe, 2010), Controversy in Marketing Theory : For Reason, Realism, Truth, and Objectivity (M.E. Sharpe, 2003) ou encore A General theory of Competition : Resources, Competences, Productivity, Economic Growth (Sage Publications, 2000). Ces ouvrages ont été précédés du célèbre et seminal livre Modern Marketing Theory : Critical Issues in the Philosophy of Marketing Science, publié en 1991. Trois des articles de S.D. Hunt, publiés dans Journal of Marketing, à savoir, « The Nature and Scope of Marketing » (1976), « General Theories and the Fundamental Explananda of Marketing » (1983) et, avec Robert M. Morgan, « The Comparative Adva

published on 20-10-2019 - 115 views
MAN AND SUPERMAN, A COMEDY AND A PHILOSOPHY

Roebuck Ramsden is in his study, opening the morning letters. The study, handsomely and solidly furnished, proclaims the man of means. Not a speck of dust is visible: it is clear that there are at least two housemaids and a parlormaid downstairs, and a housekeeper upstairs who does not let them spare elbow-grease. Even the top of Roebuck's head is polished: on a sunshiny day he could heliograph his orders to distant camps by merely nodding. In no other respect, however, does he suggest the military man. It is in active civil life that men get his broad air of importance, his dignified expectation of deference, his determinate mouth disarmed and refined since the hour of his success by the withdrawal of opposition and the concession of comfort and precedence and power. He is more than a highly respectable man: he is marked out as a president of highly respectable men, a chairman among directors, an alderman among councillors, a mayor among aldermen. Four tufts of iron-grey hair, which will soon be as white as isinglass, and are in other respects not at all unlike it, grow in two symmetrical pairs above his ears and at the angles of his spreading jaws. He wears a black frock coat, a white waistcoat (it is bright spring weather), and trousers, neither black nor perceptibly blue, of one of those indefinitely mixed hues which the modern clothier has produced to harmonize with the religions of respectable men. He has not been out of doors yet to-day; so he still wears his slippers, his boots being ready for him on the hearthrug. Surmising that he has no valet,

published on 20-10-2019 - 108 views
The Problems of Philosophy

Bertrand Russell attempts to create a brief and accessible guide to the problems of philosophy. Focusing on problems he believes will provoke positive and constructive discussion, Russell concentrates on knowledge rather than metaphysics. A lively and still one of the best introductions to philosophy, this book pays off both a closer reading for students and specialists, and a casual reading for the general public.

published on 19-10-2019 - 96 views
Sylvie and Bruno

Sylvie and Bruno has two main plots: one set in the real world at the time the book was published (the Victorian era), the other in the fantasy world of Fairyland. While the latter plot is a fairy tale with many nonsense elements and poems, similar to Carroll's Alice books, the story set in Victorian Britain is a social novel, with its characters discussing various concepts and aspects of religion, society, philosophy and morality.

published on 19-10-2019 - 126 views
Skill of Communication

UNIT-1 1. INTRODUCTION Humans convey information through a variety of methods: speaking, telephones, email, blogs, TV, art, hand gestures, facial expressions, body language and even social contexts. Communication can occur instantaneously in closed, intimate settings or over great periods of time in large public forums, like the Internet. However, all forms of communication require the same basic elements: a speaker or sender of information, a message, and an audience or recipient. The sender and recipient must also share a common language or means of understanding each other for communication to be successful. As such, a study of communication often examines the development and structure of language, including the mathematical languages used in computer programming. The act of communicating draws on several interpersonal and intrapersonal skills. These include speaking, listening, observing, questioning, processing, analyzing and evaluating. Recipients of a message must be able to identify the sender’s intent, take into account the message’s context, resolve any misunderstandings, accurately decode the information and decide how to act on it. Such skills are essential to learning, forming healthy relationships, creating a sense of community and achieving success in the workplace. As a field of study, communication spans a broad, rich array of subjects, including sociology, psychology, philosophy, political science, linguistics, history, literature, criticism and rhetoric. Although much of the field’s subject matter is theoretical in nature, communication studies have proven applicable to business, film, theater, composition, advertising, education, foreign policy and computer science.

published on 19-10-2019 - 142 views
Heretics

Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936) was one of the most influential English writers of the 20th century. His prolific and diverse output included journalism, philosophy, poetry, biography, Christian apologetics, fantasy and detective fiction. Chesterton has been called the "prince of paradox." Time magazine, in a review of a biography of Chesterton, observed of his writing style: "Whenever possible Chesterton made his points with popular sayings, proverbs, allegories—first carefully turning them inside out." For example, Chesterton wrote the following: Thieves respect property. They merely wish the property to become their property that they may more perfectly respect it. Chesterton is well known for his reasoned apologetics and even those who disagree with him have recognized the universal appeal of such works as Orthodoxy and The Everlasting Man. Chesterton, as political thinker, cast aspersions on both Liberalism and Conservatism, saying: The whole modern world has divided itself into Conservatives and Progressives. The business of Progressives is to go on making mistakes. The business of the Conservatives is to prevent the mistakes from being corrected. Chesterton routinely referred to himself as an "orthodox" Christian, and came to identify such a position with Catholicism more and more, eventually converting to Roman Catholicism. George Bernard Shaw, Chesterton's "friendly enemy" according to Time, said of him, "He was a man of colossal genius".

published on 18-10-2019 - 134 views
Philosophy in the Bedroom

Marqués de Sade Philosophy in the Bedroom Marqués de Sade Philosophy in the Bedroom Marqués de Sade Philosophy in the Bedroom

published on 18-10-2019 - 71 views
LES INFORTUNES DE LA VERTU

Les Infortunes de la vertu est un conte philosophique de Sade, écrit en 1787. L'ouvrage est écrit entre le 23 juin et le 8 juillet 1787, alors que Sade est emprisonné à la Bastille. Justine ou les Malheurs de la vertu, publiée en 1791, est la seconde version de cette histoire, qui sera elle-même suivie d'une troisième version, La Nouvelle Justine ou les Malheurs de la vertu, publiée en 1799. Le prénom de l'héroïne, Justine, est celui qui avait été donné à Catherine Trillet, domestique au château de La Coste en 1776. Le manuscrit des Infortunes de la vertu a été mis au jour en 1909 par Guillaume Apollinaire et a été publié pour la première fois en 1930

published on 16-10-2019 - 101 views
Dating Guru Lost Chapters 2

Learn to master your relationships with others. Learn how to build longer, lasting friendships. Learn how to have a more romantic and sexier love life. Know how to have a good grasp on yourself and how to strengthen yourself, which will allow you to enjoy the best relationships possible. The list goes on and on…relationships are incredibly complex and dynamic, and the better you become at navigating them, the happier you will become. By reading on you can start: having more positive relationships more of the time, spend time learning the skill of being alone to build confidence, taking a genuine interest in what other people tell you, increasing your likability, putting yourself in situations where you can meet new people, to even dealing with sexual addiction!

published on 16-10-2019 - 108 views
Think and Grow Rich

"When you begin to think and grow rich, you will observe that riches begin with a state of mind, with definiteness of purpose, with little or no hard work. You, and every other person, ought to be interested in knowing how to acquire that state of mind which will attract riches… Observe very closely, as soon as you master the principles of this philosophy, and begin to follow the instructions for applying those principles, your financial status will begin to improve, and everything you touch will begin to transmute itself into an asset for your benefit. Impossible? Not at all!” Success comes to those who become success conscious. Failure comes to those who indifferently allow themselves to become failure conscious.

published on 15-10-2019 - 249 views
Vingt-quatre heures de la vie d’une femme

Zweig was the son of Moritz Zweig, a wealthy Jewish textile manufacturer, and Ida (Brettauer) Zweig, the daughter of an Italian banking family. He studied philosophy and the history of literature, and in Vienna he was associated with the avant garde Young Vienna movement. Jewish religion did not play a central role in his education. "My mother and father were Jewish only through accident of birth," Zweig said later in an interview.

published on 15-10-2019 - 110 views
Amok ou le Fou de Malaisie

Zweig was the son of Moritz Zweig, a wealthy Jewish textile manufacturer, and Ida (Brettauer) Zweig, the daughter of an Italian banking family. He studied philosophy and the history of literature, and in Vienna he was associated with the avant garde Young Vienna movement. Jewish religion did not play a central role in his education

published on 15-10-2019 - 83 views
La dioptrique

René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. Dubbed the "Founder of Modern Philosophy", and the "Father of Modern Mathematics"

published on 15-10-2019 - 114 views
les carnets du sous sol

C’est le monologue d’un homme rempli de haine. Il a quarante ans, c’est un ancien fonctionnaire malade du foie depuis une vingtaine d’années. Il ne se soigne pas par méchanceté envers lui-même ; il avait démissionné et vit depuis grâce à un petit héritage. L’homme se complaît dans sa déchéance * « Il y a de la volupté dans le mal de dents ». Il revendique sa supériorité sur l’homme simple et spontané qu’il nomme l’« homme normal », pourtant il a essayé d’être comme eux, sans succès3. Il place le fait de souffrir comme un signe de plaisir4, voire une volupté.

published on 14-10-2019 - 92 views
Al Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness

The remarkable treatise, which I introduce to your notice, is a translation from one of the numerous works of the Arabian Philosopher, Abou Hamid Mohammed ben Mohammed al Ghazzali, who flourished in the eleventh century. He was born about the year A. D. 1056, or 450 of the Mohammedan era, at Tous in Khorasan, and he died in the prime of life in his native country about the year 1011, or 505 A. H. Although educated by Mohammedan parents, he avows that during a considerable period of his life he was a prey to doubts about the truth, and that at times he was an absolute sceptic. While yet comparatively young, his learning and genius recommended him to the renowned sovereign Nizam ul Mulk, who gave him a professorship in the college which he had founded at Bagdad. His speculative mind still harassing him with doubts, in his enthusiasm to arrive at a solid foundation for knowledge, he resigned his position, visited Mecca and Jerusalem, and finally returned to Khorasan, where he led a life of both monastic study and devotion, and consecrated his pen to writing the results of his meditations.

published on 14-10-2019 - 80 views
The Antichrist Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) was a German philosopher. His writing included critiques of religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy, and science, using a distinctive style and displaying a fondness for aphorism. Nietzsche's influence remains substantial within and beyond philosophy, notably in existentialism and postmodernism. Nietzsche began his career as a philologist before turning to philosophy. At the age of 24 he became Professor of Classical Philology at the University of Basel, but resigned in 1879 due to health problems, which would plague him for most of his life. In 1889 he exhibited symptoms of a serious mental illness, living out his remaining years in the care of his mother and sister until his death in 1900.

published on 14-10-2019 - 117 views
Beyond Good and Evil

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) was a German philosopher. His writing included critiques of religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy, and science, using a distinctive style and displaying a fondness for aphorism. Nietzsche's influence remains substantial within and beyond philosophy, notably in existentialism and postmodernism. Nietzsche began his career as a philologist before turning to philosophy. At the age of 24 he became Professor of Classical Philology at the University of Basel, but resigned in 1879 due to health problems, which would plague him for most of his life. In 1889 he exhibited symptoms of a serious mental illness, living out his remaining years in the care of his mother and sister until his death in 1900.

published on 14-10-2019 - 106 views
Traité de la mécanique et Abrégé de la musique

René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. Dubbed the "Founder of Modern Philosophy", and the "Father of Modern Mathematics"

published on 14-10-2019 - 95 views
Règles pour la direction de l’esprit

René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. Dubbed the "Founder of Modern Philosophy", and the "Father of Modern Mathematics"

published on 14-10-2019 - 90 views
Java Fundamentals

The history and philosophy of java and basic java.

published on 13-10-2019 - 143 views
CALIGULA Pièce en quatre actes

CALIGULA a été représenté pour la première fois en 1945 sur la scène du Théâtre Hébertot (direction Jacques Hébertot), dans la mise en scène de Paul Oettly ; le décor étant de Louis Miquel et les costumes de Marie Viton.

published on 11-10-2019 - 92 views
Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Volume 4

As in many other of these Studies, and perhaps more than in most, the task attempted in the present volume is mainly of a tentative and preliminary character. There is here little scope yet for the presentation of definite scientific results. However it may be in the physical universe, in the cosmos of science our knowledge must be nebulous before it constellates into definitely measurable shapes, and nothing is gained by attempting to anticipate the evolutionary process. Thus it is that here, for the most part, we have to content ourselves at present with the task of mapping out the field in broad and general outlines, bringing together the facts and considerations which indicate the direction in which more extended and precise results will in the future be probably found.

published on 10-10-2019 - 128 views
The Problems of Philosophy

The Problems of Philosophy is a 1912 book by Bertrand Russell, in which the author attempts to create a brief and accessible guide to the problems of philosophy. Focusing on problems he believes will provoke positive and constructive discussion, Russell concentrates on knowledge rather than metaphysics: If it is uncertain that external objects exist, how can we then have knowledge of them but by probability. There is no reason to doubt the existence of external objects simply because of sense data. Russell guides the reader through his famous 1910 distinction between knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description and introduces important theories of Plato, Aristotle, René Descartes, David Hume, John Locke, Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and others to lay the foundation for philosophical inquiry by general readers and scholars alike.

published on 09-10-2019 - 127 views